Paolo Sarpi (1552 - 1623)

Publié le par Socrates Philalethe

   Paolo Sarpi (August 14, 1552 – January 15, 1623) was a Venetian patriot, scholar, scientist and church reformer. His most important roles were as a canon lawyer and historian active on behalf of the Venetian Republic.

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[edit] Early years

He was born Pietro Sarpi in Venice, the son of a tradesman, but was orphaned at an early age. He was educated by his maternal uncle and then Giammaria Capella, aServite monk. Ignoring the opposition of his remaining family, he entered the Servite order in 1566. He assumed the name of Paolo, by which, with the epithet Servita, he was always known to his contemporaries.[1]

In 1570 he sustained 318 theses at a disputation in Mantua, and was so applauded that the Duke of Mantua made him court theologian. Sarpi spent four years at Mantua, studying mathematics and the Oriental languages. He then went to Milan in 1575, where he enjoyed the protection of Cardinal Borromeo to whom he was an adviser;[2]but was soon transferred by his superiors to Venice, as professor of philosophy at the Servite convent. In 1579, he was sent to Rome on business connected with the reform of his order, which brought him into close contact with three successive popes, as well as the grand inquisitor and other influential people.

Having completed the task entrusted to him, he returned to Venice in 1588, and passed the next seventeen years in study, occasionally interrupted the need to intervene in the internal disputes of his community. In 1601, he was recommended by the Venetian senate for the small bishopric of Caorle, but the papal nuncio, who wished to obtain it for a protégé of his own, accused Sarpi of having denied the immortality of the soul and controverted the authority of Aristotle. An attempt to obtain another small bishopric in the following year also failed, Pope Clement VIII having taken offence at Sarpi's habit of corresponding with learned heretics.

[edit] Venice in conflict with the Pope

 

 

Statue of Paolo Sarpi in the Campo Santa Fosca in Venice

Clement died in March 1605, and the attitude of his successor Pope Paul V strained the limits of papal prerogative. Venice simultaneously adopted measures to restrict it: the right of the secular tribunals to take cognizance of the offences of ecclesiastics had been asserted in two leading cases, and the scope of two ancient laws of the city, forbidding the foundation of churches or ecclesiastical congregations without the consent of the state, and the acquisition of property by priests or religious bodies, had been extended over the entire territory of the republic. In January 1606, the papal nuncio delivered a brief demanding the unconditional submission of the Venetians. The senate promised protection to all ecclesiastics who should in this emergency aid the republic by their counsel. Sarpi presented a memoir, pointing out that the threatened censures might be met in two ways--de facto, by prohibiting their publication, and de jure, by an appeal to a general council. The document was well received, and Sarpi was made canonist and theological counsellor to the republic.

The following April, hopes of compromise were dispelled by Paul's excommunication of the Venetians and his attempt to lay their dominions under an interdict. Sarpi entered energetically into the controversy. It was unprecedented for an ecclesiastic of his eminence to argue the subjection of the clergy to the state.[3] He began by republishing the anti-papal opinions of the canonist Jean Gerson. In an anonymous tract published shortly afterwards (Risposta di un Dottore in Teologia), he laid down principles which struck radically at papal authority in secular matters. This book was promptly included in the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, and Gerson's work was attacked by Bellarmine with severity. Sarpi then replied in an Apologia. The Considerazioni sulle censure and the Trattato dell' interdetto, the latter partly prepared under his direction by other theologians, soon followed. Numerous other pamphlets appeared, inspired or controlled by Sarpi, who had received the further appointment of censor of everything written at Venice in defence of the republic.

The Venetian clergy largely disregarded the interdict, and discharged their functions as usual, the major exception being the Jesuits who left, and were simulataneously expelled officially.[4] The Catholic powers France and Spain refused to be drawn into the quarrel, but resorted to diplomacy.[4] At length (April 1607), a compromise was arranged through the mediation of the king of France, which salvaged the pope's dignity, but conceded the points at issue. The victory was not so much the defeat of the papal pretensions as the recognition that interdicts and excommunication had lost their force.

[edit] Later life

The republic rewarded him with the distinction of state counsellor in jurisprudence and the liberty of access to the state archives. These honours exasperated his adversaries. On October 5, he was attacked by assassins and left for dead, but he recovered. His attackers found a refuge in the papal territories. Their chief, Poma, declared that he had attempted the murder for religious reasons. "Agnosco stylum Curiae Romanae," Sarpi himself said, when his surgeon commented on the ragged and inartistic character of the wounds. The only question is the degree of complicity of Pope Paul V.

The remainder of Sarpi's life was spent peacefully in his cloister, though plots against him continued to be formed, and he occasionally spoke of taking refuge in England. When not engaged in preparing state papers, he devoted himself to scientific studies, and composed several works. He served the Venetian state to the last. The day before his death, he had dictated three replies to questions on affairs of state, and his last words were "Esto perpetua."[citation needed]

[editHistory of the Council of Trent

In 1619 his chief literary work Istoria del Concilio Tridentino (History of the Council of Trent), was printed at London. It appeared under the name of Pietro Soave Polano, an anagram of Paolo Sarpi Veneto (plus o). The editor, Marco Antonio de Dominis, did some work on polishing the text. He has been accused of falsifying it, but a comparison with a manuscript corrected by Sarpi himself shows that the alterations are unimportant. Translations into other languages followed: there were the English translation by Nathaniel Brent and a Latin edition in 1620 made partly by Adam Newton,[5] and French and German editions.[6][7]

Its emphasis was on the role of the Papal Curia, and its slant on the Curia hostile. This was unofficial history, rather than a commission, and treated ecclesiastical history as politics.[8] This attitude, "bitterly realistic" for John Hale, was coupled with a criticism, that the Tridentine settlement was not concilatory but designed for further conflict.[9]Denys Hay calls it "a kind of Anglican picture of the debates and decisions",[10] and Sarpi was much read by Protestants; John Milton called him the "great unmasker".[11]

This book, together with the later rival and apologetic history by Cardinal Pallavicini, was criticized by Leopold von Ranke (History of the Popes), who examined the use they have respectively made of their manuscript materials. The result was not highly favourable to either: without deliberate falsification, both coloured and suppressed. They write as advocates rather than historians. Ranke rated the literary qualities of Sarpi's work very highly. Sarpi never acknowledged his authorship, and baffled all the efforts of Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé to extract the secret from him.

[edit] Other works

In 1615, a dispute occurred between the Venetian government and the Inquisition over the prohibition of a book. In 1613 the Senate had asked Sarpi to write about the history and procedure of the Venetian Inquisition. He argued that this had been set up in 1289, but as a Venetian state institution. The pope of the time, Nicholas IV, had merely consented to its creation.[12]

Machiavellian tract on the fundamental maxims of Venetian policy (Opinione come debba governarsi la repubblica di Venezia), used by his adversaries to blacken his memory, dates from 1681.[13] He did not complete a reply which he had been ordered to prepare to the Squitinio delia libertà veneta, which he perhaps found unanswerable. In folio appeared his History of Ecclesiastical Benefices, in which, says Matteo Ricci, "he purged the church of the defilement introduced by spurious decretals." In 1611, he assailed another abuse by his treatise on the right of asylum claimed for churches, which was immediately placed on the Index.

His posthumous History of the Interdict was printed at Venice the year after his death, with the disguised imprint of Lyon. Sarpi's memoirs on state affairs remained in the Venetian archives. The British Museum has a collection of tracts in the Interdict controversy, formed by Consul SmithGriselini's Memorie e aneddote (1760) is from the author's access to Sarpi's unpublished writings, afterwards destroyed by fire.

[edit] Letters

Early letter collections were: "Lettere Italiane di Fra Sarpi" (Geneva, 1673); Scelte lettere inedite de P. Sarpi", edited by Bianchi-Giovini (Capolago, 1833); "Lettere raccolte di Sarpi", edited by Polidori (Florence, 1863); "Lettere inedite di Sarpi a S. Contarini", edited by Castellani (Venice, 1892).[14]

Some hitherto unpublished letters of Sarpi were edited by Karl Benrath and published, under the title Paolo Sarpi. Neue Briefe, 1608-1610 (at Leipzig in 1909).

A modern edition (1961) Lettere ai Gallicane has been published of his hundreds of letters to French correspondents. These are mainly to jurists: Jacques Auguste de ThouJacques LechassierJacques Gillot. Another correspondent was William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire; English translations by Thomas Hobbes of 45 letters to the Earl were published (Hobbes acted as the Earl's secretary), and it is now thought that these are jointly from Sarpi (when alive) and his close friend Fulgenzio Micanzio, something concealed at the time as a matter of prudence.[15] Micanzio was also in touch with Dudley Carleton, 1st Viscount Dorchester.[16] Giusto Fontanini's Storia arcana della vita di Pietro Sarpi (1863), a bitter libel, is important for the letters of Sarpi it contains.

[edit] Views

He read and was influenced by both Michel de Montaigne and Pierre Charron.[17] In the tradition of earlier Tacitists as historian and sceptical thinker, he innovated in political thought, by his emphasis that patriotism as national pride or honour could play a central role in social control.[18]

In religion, he was certainly suspected of a lack of orthodoxy: he appeared before the Inquisition around 1575, in 1594, and in 1607.[19] Sarpi longed for the toleration of Protestant worship in Venice, and he had hoped for a separation from Rome and the establishment of a Venetian free church by which the decrees of the council of Trent would have been rejected. Sarpi's real beliefs and motives are discussed in the letters of Christoph von Dohna, envoy to Venice for Christian I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg.[20]Sarpi told Dohna that he greatly disliked saying mass, and celebrated it as seldom as possible, but that he was compelled to do so, as he would otherwise seem to admit the validity of the papal prohibition, and thus betray the cause of Venice.

This supplies the key to his whole behaviour; he was a patriot first and a religious reformer afterwards. He was "rooted" in what Giovanni Diodati described to Dohna as "the most dangerous maxim, that God does not regard externals so long as the mind and heart are right before Him."[citation needed] Sarpi had another maxim, which he thus formulated to Dohna: Le falsità non dico mai mai, ma la verità non a ognuno.

Though Sarpi admired the English prayer-book, he was neither AnglicanLutheran norCalvinist, and might have found it difficult to accommodate himself to any Protestantchurch. The opinion of Le Courayer, "qu'il était Catholique en gros et quelque fois Protestant en detail" (that he was Catholic overall and sometimes Protestant in detail) is partially true if approximate. At the end of his life, however, he favoured the Calvinist Contra-Remonstrants' side at the Synod of Dort, as he wrote to Daniel Heinsius.[21][22] Finally, Diarmaid MacCulloch suggests, he may have moved away from dogmatic Christianity.[23]

[edit] Scientific scholar

He was also respected by the scientific community of his day. He wrote notes onFrançois Viète which established his proficiency in mathematics, and a metaphysicaltreatise now lost, which is said to have anticipated the ideas of John Locke. Hisanatomical pursuits probably date from an earlier period. They illustrate his versatility and thirst for knowledge, but are otherwise not significant. His claim to have anticipatedWilliam Harvey's discovery rests on no better authority than a memorandum, probably copied from Andreas Caesalpinus or Harvey himself, with whom, as well as with Francis Bacon and William Gilbert, Sarpi corresponded. The only physiological discovery which can be safely attributed to him is that of the contractility of the iris.

Galileo corresponded with him; Sarpi heard of the telescope in November 1608, possibly before Galileo. In 1609 the Venetian Republic had a telescope on approval for military purposes, but Sarpi had them turn it down, anticipating the better model Galileo had made and brought later in the year.[24]

[edit] Further reading

Sarpi's life was written by his disciple, Fulgenzio Micanzio, whose work is meagre and uncritical. In the nineteenth century there were many biographies, including that byArabella Georgina Campbell (1869), with references to manuscripts, Pietro BalanFra Paolo Sarpi (Venice, 1887) and PascolatoFra Paolo Sarpi (Milan, 1893).

A contemporary account of Sarpi's writings on religion that argues for his historical importance as a philosophical atheist is found in David Wootton's Paolo Sarpi: Between Renaissance and Enlightenment (Cambridge, 1983).

  This letter was intercepted by Henry IV of France, who passed it to the papal nuncio, who sent it on to Rome and to the Venetian government. Sarpi was soon aware of what had happened. Writing to Christoph von Dohna on 29 September 1608, Sarpi complained, ``The King of France has written that Venice is in favor of religion, and he has played a very bad role.'' ``How did it happen that that great principle was put to sleep?'' he wrote to another correspondent that summer, referring to the French mediation of the Interdict crisis; ``that is also the reason why it is impossible to incite others.'' [Cozzi, p. 259] Sarpi's animus against Henry IV suggests that the superficial explanation of Henry's assassination in 1610 may not be the correct one.

     But the move to England and the creation of a British Empire were only part of the answer. As long as the forward motion of Renaissance science continued, the Venetians, the British, and all the others would be forced to imitate it and duplicate it, on pain of being militarily defeated. But the irrational domination of oligarchs could not coexist with continuous progress in science and technology. The Venetians could not simply attack science from the outside. They needed to seize control of science and corrupt science from within.

This task fell to the Venetian intelligence leader Paolo Sarpi, who lived from 1552 to 1623. Sarpi became one of the most famous persons in Europe through his role as Venetian propaganda boss during the Pope's Interdict against Venice in 1606-1607. Sarpi authored the assassination of King Henry IV of France in 1610. And, with the help of his assets at the court of Frederick V in Heidelberg, Sarpi was decisive in starting the Thirty Years' War, which killed half of the population of Germany and one third of the population of Europe as a whole.

Yet, Sarpi's most lasting achievement is the launching of the European Enlightenment, including both the Bacon- Hobbes- Locke- Newton- Berkeley- Hume English empiricism and the Descartes- Voltaire- Rousseau- French Encyclopedia school. Sarpi was one of the greatest corrupters of science and philosophy.

Sarpi was a Servite monk of modest origins who rose to be number two in his order. Early in life, he became an admirer of William of Ockham, one of the stupidest of the medieval nominalist philosophers. Sarpi was also a follower of Pomponazzi, the Venetian professor who argued that man has no soul.

Sarpi lived in Rome and knew the main personalities of the Counter- Reformation, including Carlo Borromeo, Roberto Bellarmino, Pope Sixtus V, and the future Pope Urban VII. Sarpi soon became a creature of the Contarini and Morosini families, who were committed to the Venetian metastasis into northern Europe. The Contarini- Morosini faction, called the Giovani party, became dominant in Venice during the 1580's. Sarpi became, in the words of the papal nuncio, the boss of half of Venice, and ran a salon for Calvinists and libertines which the Vatican attacked as an "academy of errors."

The leading British authority on Sarpi is H.R. Trevor-Roper, now Lord Dacre, who calls the friar an "indefatigable polymath" or master of all the sciences. In reality, Sarpi was the chief corrupter of modern science, the greatest charlatan of all time. It is his doctrines which are taught in the universities today.

In astronomy and physics, Sarpi was the case officer who directed the work of the Padua professor Galileo Galilei. Galileo wrote that Sarpi was a mathematician unexcelled in Europe, and contemporaries recognized that Sarpi had been the adviser, author, and director of Galileo's telescope project. Galileo's observations were done from Sarpi's monastery. The telescope itself had been invented by Leonardo. Galileo was until the end of his life a paid agent of the Sarpi group.

Sarpi also tried to build up a reputation as an expert on magnetism, which fascinated him because of its magical overtones. In this he was praised by G.B. della Porta, the author of Magia Naturalis. Sarpi was also famous as a mathematician, and probably wrote a treatise of mathematics which was lost when his monastery burned in 1769. Sarpi had studied the French mathematician Francois Viete. In anatomy, the Venetians attempted to prove for many years that Sarpi had been the first to discover the valves in human veins, and even that he had been the first to describe the circulation of the blood, well before Harvey.

Sarpi wrote A History of the Council of Trent, and his influence on historiography has been immense. John Milton is the English author who praises Sarpi at the greatest length. Milton used Sarpi as a major source, and praised him as the "great unmasker" of the papacy. Edward Gibbon, the author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was the leading historian of the British Venetian Party during the eighteenth century. In his great tome, Gibbon wrote: "Should Rome and her religion be annihilated, [Sarpi's] golden volume may still survive, a philosophical history and a salutary warning." Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay, the Venetian Party historian of the nineteenth century, was also an admirer of Sarpi. For today's Lord Dacre/Trevor- Roper, Sarpi was simply the greatest among all Catholic historians. So Sarpi was indeed a prodigy among oligarchs.

But what of Sarpi the philosopher? Sarpi never published a work of philosophy, but the Venetian archives were found to contain his philosophical manuscripts, the "Art of Thinking Well" (Arte di Ben Pensare) and the "Thoughts" (Pensieri), which were published in 1910 and again more fully in 1951. Here we find that Sarpi created the basis of modern empiricism. His method was to assert that scientific truth was to be found not in Aristotle, but rather written in mathematical characters in the great book of life. The way to get this truth was to use sense certainty, exactly as Aristotle had recommended. Many of Aristotle's specific conclusions could be junked, but his method and thus his overall domination could be preserved.

Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes both understood Italian. They and their protector, the Earl of Devonshire, corresponded with Sarpi and his group, with Hobbes doing the translation. Hobbes visited Venice in September, 1614 and probably met Sarpi. Bacon's inductive method is simply a bowdlerization of Sarpi.

Hobbes belonged to the Sarpi networks all his life. The plan for Hobbes' career as a writer emerged from his meeting with Galileo in 1636, when Galileo suggested that Hobbes write a book of ethics according to the mathematical- geometrical method. All his life Hobbes went around blathering that motion was the only thing that mattered. One of Sarpi's Pensieri reads: "From the weakness of man derives his characteristic of living in society, but from man's depravity derives the need to live under a supreme authority...." [405] This, along with Sarpi's favorite theme of church-state conflict, is the substance of Hobbes' Leviathan. When Hobbes lived in Paris during the English civil war, he rubbed elbows with Venetian assets like Mersenne, Descartes, and Gassendi. Hobbes and Descartes quarreled, but also partied together.

Then there is the question of Locke. Lord Macauley and other English writers treat Sarpi as one who anticipated Locke. In reality, Locke was a plagiarist of Sarpi. And for this we have the testimony of no less a personage than a mid-eighteenth century doge of Venice, Marco Foscarini. The doge writes that Sarpi's "Art of Thinking Well" is "the original from which Locke copied."

Locke's first book argues that the mind is a blank slate without any inborn or innate ideas. This meshes exactly with Sarpi, who with Aristotle and Pomponazzi tries to show that nothing enters the mind except through the senses. The corollary of this is that there is no human soul.

"Every body which moves operates on what it touches," is Sarpi's point of departure. Sarpi "shows how external objects operate on our senses, distinguishing between the object which creates the sensation and the sensation itself." The sensations we feel are not qualities of the objects, but phenomena of our intellect. The senses deliver the sensations through the nervous system. Then discursive reasoning or the active intellect comes into play with ideas of number and size. The discursive reasoning orders, combines, and compares sense-ideas which have been stored in memory.

This is all closely parallel to Locke's second book. In "Art of Thinking Well," Sarpi writes that "knowledge by experience is of greater certainty than knowledge through reason, and no reason can ever manage to equal experience." Locke's second book states that all our knowledge is founded on and derives itself from experience. Experience comes from sensation or from reflection, reflection on the sense impressions already stored in the brain. Sarpi also discusses reflection, distinguishing between cognition and later reflection on that same cognition.

Sarpi admits compound ideas, made up of more than one simple sense impression, and so does Locke. Sense impressions in general do not err, says Sarpi, although sometimes impaired vision and the like will cause distortions, and discursive reasoning can become confused. Locke's second book has similar remarks, with a discussion of color blindness. Both devote space to methods for fixing mistakes in processing sense ideas.

Sarpi argues that the intellect orders ideas according to notions of genus, species, and essence. For Locke, "all the great business of genera and species, and their essences... amounts to no more than this: That... men... enable themselves to consider things in bundles...." [II.31] From these bundles, Sarpi goes on to definitions and then to axioms (ipolipsi). Locke prefers to address axioms as maxims, and he argues that they are of limited utility, serving mainly to win debates. Sarpi is even more pessimistic, asserting that knowledge is actually harmful, and that animals are better off in their natural ignorance than we are.

Sarpi and Locke also agree on the value of syllogisms, which they also consider to be quite limited. Sarpi warns that syllogisms can often be perverse in form. Locke, wanting to show that he is fully modern and in no way a scholastic or schoolman, also denies every claim made for the syllogism - although he hastens to add that this does not in the least diminish the prestige of Aristotle.

Sarpi ends with some notes on language, saying that words were invented not to identify things, but rather the ideas of the speaker. Locke reproduces this argument in toto, stating that "...all words... signify nothing immediately but the ideas in the mind of the speaker." [II.32] Sarpi regards words as sources of confusion and errors, as does Locke.

Most of Locke's modern editors and biographers make no mention of Sarpi. But the catalogue of Locke's library shows a lively interest in the Venetian. Locke owned Sarpi's works in 6 volumes, Sarpi's histories of the Council of Trent and of the Inquisition, Sarpi's Italian letters, his history of Pope Paul IV, plus Micanzio's first biography of Sarpi, for a total of 13 books

Sarpi uses 22 pages, while Locke requires just short of 1000. But there is no doubt that Sarpi, whatever his obscurity, is the founder of modern British empiricism and as such the chief philosophical charlatan of the British Empire and the English- speaking peoples, including many Americans today. In this way, Sarpi has become the most popular and influential thinker of the modern world. The dead hand of Paolo Sarpi is reaching out of his sarcophagus once again, threatening to throttle world civilization.

  

PAOLO SARPI

Sarpi sounds very much like Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, and Hume. This is no surprise, since Sarpi and Micanzio were in close contact with Hobbes and Bacon, sometimes directly, and sometimes through the intermediary of William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire, a friend of Francis Bacon and the employer of Thomas Hobbes. Bacon was of course a raving irrationalist, a Venetian-style Rosicrucian, and a bugger. Cavendish may have introduced Bacon to Hobbes, who soon became a couple. In Chatsworth House in Cornwall there is a manuscript entitled ``Hobbes' Translations of Italian Letters,'' containing 77 missives from Micanzio to the Earl (called ``Candiscio''). According to Dudley Carleton, Cavendish visited Venice and Padova in September 1614, accompanied by Hobbes. At that time meetings with Sarpi and Micanzio would have been on the agenda.

Sarpi admirait Montaigne, ils partageaient une vision commune de l’homme et de la raison – l’homme comme le moins parfait des animaux. Montaigne fut élevé ar un militaire qui fit campagne en Italie, et voyagea de nombreuses fois à Venise de son vivant. Faut-il y voir un Hasard ?

Sarpi fut le précurseur du calcul hédoniste de bentham, à travers on concept libido dominandi

``There are four modes of philosophizing: the first with reason alone, the second with sense alone, the third with reason and then sense, and the fourth beginning with sense and ending with reason. The first is the worst, because from it we know what we would like to be, not what is. The third is bad because we many times distort what is into what we would like, rather than adjusting what we would like to what is. The second is true but crude, permitting us to know little and that rather of things than of their causes. The fourth is the best we can have in this miserable life. (Scritti filosofici e teologici, Bari: Laterza, 1951, Pensiero 146)

Nous trouvons la les vrais prémisces de la méthode inductive de Francis Bacon, dont les idées descendent généalogiquement de l’Arte di Ben Pensare de Sarpi. Pour Sarpi et l’empirisme, il n’y a pas de concepts universaux, pas d’universalité ou d’essence qui sont « des objets de l’esprit » [Pensiero 371], « des distortions du réel ». Son pragmatisme l’amène à penser que « nous méprisons la connaissance des choses dont nous n’avons pas besoin » [289]. On peut le tenir également pour un récurseur de Hume et du relativisme culturel, quand il affirme que chaque « culture » possède des référents moraux et esthétiques propres (« donc les républiques, les batiments, la politique des Tatars et des Indiens sont différents »[159])

Dans le champ religieux Sarpi et son fidèle Micanzio semblent également suivre la ligne ex sola fide comme le témoigne un nonce papal chargé de les surveiller : « [Micanzio]exalte grandement la Foi dans le sang du Christ et les Grâces de Dieu pour notre Salut, mais se réfère rarement aux Œuvres… » [Bouwsma, p. 498]

On devrait s’étonner plus souvent de trouver de si nombreuses correspondances entre les penseur élizabétains de l’empirisme (Bacon, Hobbes, Locke, Hume) et Sarpi et sa suite, tant la correspondance est foudroyante. Mais ces hommes de fait, se connaissaient, au moins par l’intermédiairedu Compte de Devonshire, William Cavendish, emloyeur de Hobbes at ami de Bacon, qui les présenta (ils devinrent amants). A Chatsworth House en Cornouaille est conservé le manuscrit de la traduction par Hobbes de 77 lettres de Micanzio à Cavendish ; Selon Dudley Carleton, Hobbes et Cavendish visitèrent Venise en 1614, où de probables rendez-vous avec Sarppi et Micanio furent organisés. [De Mas, p. 155]. Son Histoire du Concile de Trente dédicacée à James Ier fut de prime d’abord imprimé et publié à Londres.

Paolo Paruta fut un des premiers empiristes et ami de Sarpi.

``Although our intellect may be divine from its birth, nevertheless here below it lives among these earthly members and cannot perform its operations without the help of bodily sensation. By their means, drawing into the mind the images of material things, it represents these things to itself and in this way forms its concepts of them. By the same token it customarily rises to spiritual contemplations not by itself but awakened by sense objects.'' [Bouwsma, p. 206]

Précurseur d’Adam Smith, il affirme : ``The desire to grow rich is as natural in us as the desire to live. Nature provides the brute animals with the things necessary for their lives; but in man, whom it makes poor, naked, and subject to many needs, it inserts this desire for riches and gives him intelligence and industry to acquire them.'' [Bouwsma, p. 211]

Et également inspirateur de Gibbon dans son traitement de l’histoire de la chute de l’Empire Romain. ``This stupendous apparatus, constructed over a long course of years through the great virtue and the many exertions of so many valorous men, had finally run the course common to human things, that is to be dissolved and to fall to earth; and with its ruin it brought on the greatest revolution in things.'' [Bouwsma, p. 283]

The second phase of the Venetian operations was much more devastating. It was launched by the notorious Paolo Sarpi. It was in this phase that England's mind and soul were taken, and England was set up to become the bastion of the New Age. To understand this, you must understand the mind of Paolo Sarpi, and who in Venice deployed him.
Paolo Sarpi was nominally a Servite monk who was exceptionally talented. Yet he was much more. He was the leading organizer of the Giovani. Out of the Giovani salons and secret society, Venice planned the destruction of Christianity in what was later to be called Freemasonry.
In a book about Sarpi, a modern historian by the name of Wooton proves that Sarpi was the creator of empiricism and taught Francis Bacon his so-called scientific method. The thesis of this book, which the author proves conclusively, is that Sarpi, while nominally a Catholic monk, revealed himself in his philosophical work to be a radical atheist. Sarpi was to argue that the idea of the need for a providential religion, as the basis for the majority of men acting morally, was unnecessary. He insisted that belief in God was irrational, since it is not necessary to explain the existence of the physical universe by an act of creation. This is the empiricism of Bacon. It was later revealed by sources that Sarpi was a homosexual and a blasphemer, who believed that the Bible was just some fantastic stories. He especially attacked the idea that Moses was given the Ten Commandments by God. Since one could be burned for these beliefs, he never published his philosophical writings. Some of you may be aware of the phrase, ``The pope is the Anti-Christ.'' It was Paolo Sarpi that created that myth.
He is the real founder of modernism and the Enlightenment. With these ideas, he created a pagan cult later called Freemasonry, which dominates England to this day. Out of this salon came Giordano Bruno, Galileo (a complicated case), the Rosicrucian cult, and the Thirty Years' War.

While it takes some 80 more years to complete the Venetian takeover, the empire of the mind became ensconced in England. Sarpi and Venice create the Rosicrucian cult of syncretic religion that becomes Freemasonry. Once that process of takeover is complete, England becomes the bastion of paganism: usury and slavery. In short, real Aristotelians. This hatred of imago Dei is the basis of England's promotion of the New Age. This was Sarpi's program and intention, and it completed the essential destruction of the English soul. Venice and Venetian methods had transplanted themselves in England.

Jeunesse chez les Servites

Paolo Sarpi est né Pietro Sarpi à Venise, fils d'un commerçant. Il fut orphelin jeune. Ignorant l'opposition du reste de sa famille, il entra chez les servites, où il prit le nom de Fra Paolo, à l'age de trente ans. Il soutint pas moins de trois cents quatre vingt thèses. En 1579, il a été envoyé à Rome pour des affaires en rapport avec la réforme de son ordre. Il étudia toutes les sciences et devint en 1585 procureur général de son ordre.

Venise en conflit avec le pape

À partir de 1606, il se porta défenseur de Venise dans ses démêlés avec le pape Paul V. La république le nomma son théologien consultant, puis membre du Tribunal des Dix. Il dut affronter l'excommunication pendant le conflit. À l'Université de Padoue, il rencontraGalileo Galilei, qui devint son ami.

Clément meurt en mars 1605, et l'attitude du pape Paul V est considéré comme menaçant en étendant ses prérogatives. En janvier 1606, un nonce du pape présente une lettre où le pape exige la soumission des Vénitiens.

Paolo Sarpi servit à l’époque où l’État-nation républicain moderne, issu de la Renaissance du XVe siècle, institua le progrès scientifico-technologique comme une force qui, pour des raisons de rivalité stratégique entre nations, ne pouvait tout simplement plus être étouffée. Par conséquent, le progrès technologique devait être utilisé comme source de puissance économique et militaire relative. Comme le montre l’attachement de Galilée (un laquais personnel de Sarpi) à sa version rudimentaire de l’hypothèse solaire, en opposition à ses contemporains aristotéliciens, l’empirisme de Sarpi fut conçu de manière à autoriser l’utilisation de la technologie - mais de façon sélective, tout en étouffant parmi la population la connaissance des pouvoirs mentaux créateurs ayant permis de découvrir de manière systématique les principes physiques fondamentaux de l’univers.

Il est le fondateur du culte irrationnel de l’empirisme

Ayant été, en 1607, blessé par des assassins, il fut traité aux frais de l'État.

Histoire de l'interdit, Venise, 1606,

Histoire du concile de TrenteLondres, 1619,

Traité des Bénéfices

un petit écrit sur le Gouvernement de la République de Venise (trad. par Amelot de La Houssaye, sous le titre de Le Prince de Fra Paolo).

L'histoire du concile de Trente a été traduite en français par Le Courayer, 1736, et réfutée par le cardinal Pallavicino.

magnificenza delle città," for Botero's theory of population. Botero was a figure in the ambiance of the notorious Paolo Sarpi, who had studied with the notorious Aristotelian fanatic Bellarmino. In addition to his population theory, Botero is famous for his attacks, in De regia sapienta (1581), on Niccolò Machiavelli's work. back

Publié dans XVIIe Siècle

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